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Albania had also been feuding with Moscow over suggestions that Albania should focus on agriculture to the detriment of industrial development.
Soviet-Albanian relations dipped to new lows after the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in , and Albania felt that the Soviet Union had become too liberal since the death of Joseph Stalin.
The invasion served as the tipping point, and within one month September Albania formally withdrew from the Warsaw Pact.
In the mids, Albania's leaders grew wary of a threat to their power by a burgeoning bureaucracy. Party discipline had eroded. People complained about malfeasance , inflation , and low-quality goods.
Writers strayed from the orthodoxy of socialist realism , which demanded that art and literature serve as instruments of government and party policy.
The Albanian leader concentrated on reforming the military, government bureaucracy, and economy as well as on creating new support for his system.
The regime abolished military ranks, reintroduced political commissars into the military, and renounced professionalism in the army.
Railing against a "white-collar mentality," the authorities also slashed the salaries of mid- and high-level officials, ousted administrators and specialists from their desk jobs, and sent such persons to toil in the factories and fields.
Six ministries, including the Ministry of Justice, were eliminated. Farm collectivization even spread to the remote mountains.
In addition, the government attacked dissident writers and artists, reformed its educational system, and generally reinforced Albania's isolation from European culture in an effort to keep out foreign influences.
After the 5th Congress of the Party of Labor of Albania and Enver Hoxha's speech on 6 February , the authorities launched a violent campaign to extinguish religious life in Albania , claiming that religion had divided the Albanian nation and kept it mired in backwardness.
Despite complaints, even by APL members, all churches, mosques, monasteries, and other religious institutions were closed or converted into warehouses, gymnasiums, and workshops by year's end.
A special decree abrogated the charters by which the country's main religious communities had operated.
The campaign culminated in an announcement that Albania had become the world's first atheistic state , a feat which was trumpeted as one of Enver Hoxha's greatest achievements.
The Constitution of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania later stipulated in Article 37 that "The state recognizes no religion whatever and supports atheist propaganda for the purpose of inculcating the scientific materialist world outlook in people" and Article 55 explicitly forbade the formation of "any type of organization of a fascist, anti-democratic, religious, and anti-socialist character" and stated that "Fascist, anti-democratic, religious , war-mongering, and anti-socialist activities and propaganda, as well as the incitement of national and racial hatred are prohibited.
On November 1, , Enver Hoxha claimed in his Report submitted to the 7th Congress of the Party of Labor of Albania on the activity of the Party's Central Committee that the Constitution was an embodiment of the free will of the Albanian people, because genuine democracy was necessary in order for socialism to actually exist.
He said that, "the broad masses of the working people freely aired their views on the new Fundamental Law of our state of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
About 1,, people, practically the entire adult population of the country, participated in the meetings which were held, and about , people contributed to the discussion The great popular discussion, characterized by a free and fruitful thrashing out of opinions, by lively and constructive debate, was a clear expression of our socialist democracy in action and the genuine sovereignty of the people.
It demonstrated in practice that in socialist Albania the people are the masters, that nothing is done against their will. During the Cultural and Ideological Revolution, traditional kinship links in Albania, which were centered on the patriarchal family, were shattered by the postwar repression of clan leaders, collectivization of agriculture, industrialization, migration from the countryside to urban areas, and suppression of religion.
Considered second-class citizens in traditional Albanian society, women did most of the work at home and they also did most of the work in the fields.
During the Cultural and Ideological Revolution, the party encouraged women to take jobs outside the home in an effort to compensate for labor shortages and overcome their conservatism.
Hoxha himself proclaimed that anyone who trampled on the party's edict on women's rights should be "hurled into the fire.
Albanian-Chinese relations had stagnated by , and when the Asian giant began to reemerge from isolation and the Cultural Revolution in the early s, Mao and the other Communist Chinese leaders reassessed their commitment to tiny Albania.
In response, Albania began to broaden its contacts with the outside world. Albania opened trade negotiations with France , Italy , and the recently independent Asian and African states, and in it normalised relations with Yugoslavia and Greece.
Albania's leaders abhorred the contacts of the People's Republic of China with the United States in the early s, and its press and radio ignored President Richard Nixon 's trip to Beijing in Albania actively worked to reduce its dependence on Communist China by diversifying trade and improving diplomatic and cultural relations, especially with Western Europe.
But Albania shunned the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and it was the only European country that refused to take part in the Helsinki Conference of July Soon after Mao's death in , Hoxha criticized the new leadership as well as Beijing's pragmatic policy towards the United States and Western Europe.
The Chinese retorted by inviting Tito to visit Beijing in and ending assistance programs for Albania in The Sino-Albanian split left Albania with no foreign benefactor.
Albania ignored calls to normalize relations by the United States and the Soviet Union. Instead, Albania expanded its diplomatic ties with Western Europe and the developing nations and it also began to stress the principle of self-reliance as the keystone of the country's strategy for economic development.
Albania, however, did not have many resources of its own, and Hoxha's cautious opening to the outside world was not enough to bolster Albania's economy, and nascent movements for change stirred up inside Albania.
Without Chinese or Soviet aid, the country began to experience widespread shortages of everything from machine parts to wheat and animal feed.
Infrastructure and living standards began to collapse. As Hoxha's health slipped, muted calls arose for the relaxation of party controls and greater openness.
In response, Hoxha launched a fresh series of purges that removed the defense minister and many top military officials.
A year later, Hoxha purged ministers who were responsible for the country's economy and replaced them with younger people.
As Hoxha began to experience more health problems, he progressively withdrew from state affairs and took longer and more frequent leaves of absence.
Meanwhile, he began to plan an orderly succession. He worked to institutionalize his policies, hoping to frustrate any attempt which his successors might make to venture from the Stalinist path which he had blazed for Albania.
In December , Albania adopted its second Stalinist constitution of the postwar era. The document guaranteed Albanians freedom of speech , the press , organization , association , and assembly but subordinated these rights to the individual's duties to society as a whole.
The constitution continued to emphasize national pride and unity, the idea of autarky was enshrined in law and the government was prohibited from seeking financial aid or credits or forming joint companies with partners from capitalist or revisionist communist countries.
The constitution's preamble also boasted that the foundations of religious belief had been abolished in Albania.
In , Hoxha tapped Ramiz Alia to succeed him as Albania's communist patriarch, overlooking his long-standing comrade-in-arms, Mehmet Shehu.
Hoxha first tried to convince Shehu to voluntarily step aside, but when this move failed, Hoxha arranged for all of the members of the Politburo to rebuke him for allowing his son to become engaged to the daughter of a former bourgeois family.
Shehu allegedly committed suicide on 18 December Some suspect that Hoxha had him killed. Hoxha had Shehu's wife and three sons arrested, one of whom killed himself in prison.
In Hoxha relinquished many of his duties due to poor health, and Alia assumed responsibility for Albania's administration. Alia traveled around Albania extensively, standing in for Hoxha at major events and delivering addresses laying down new policies and intoning litanies to the enfeebled president.
Hoxha died on 11 April Alia succeeded Hoxha to the presidency and became the legal secretary of the APL two days later. In due course, he became a dominant figure in the Albanian media, and his slogans were painted in crimson letters on signboards across the country.
After Hoxha's death, Ramiz Alia maintained firm control of the country and its security apparatus, but Albania's desperate economic situation required Alia to introduce some reforms.
Continuing a policy set by Hoxha, Alia reestablished diplomatic relations with West Germany in return for development aid and he also courted Italy and France.
He signed the Helsinki Agreement which was signed by other countries in which respected some human rights.
On 11 December , under enormous pressure from students and workers, Alia announced that the Party of Labor had abandoned its guaranteed right to rule, that other parties could be formed, and free elections would be held in the spring of Alia 's party won the elections on 31 March —the first free elections held in decades.
The position of the communists was confirmed in the first round of elections under a interim law, but two months later, it fell during a general strike.
A committee of "national salvation" took over but it also collapsed within six months. On 22 March , the Communists were trumped by the Democratic Party in national elections.
The Democratic Party had to implement the reforms it had promised, but they were either too slow or did not solve the country's problems, so people were disappointed when their hopes for fast prosperity went unfulfilled.
In the general elections of June the Democratic Party tried to win an absolute majority by manipulating the results.
This government collapsed in in the wake of additional collapses of pyramid schemes and widespread corruption , which caused chaos and rebellion throughout the country.
The government attempted to suppress the rebellion by military force but the attempt failed, due to long-term corruption of the armed forces, forcing other nations to intervene.
Pursuant to the interim basic law, Albanians ratified a constitution in , establishing a democratic system of government based upon the rule of law and guaranteeing the protection of fundamental human rights.
The policies which were pursued by Enver Hoxha and his followers influenced political and economic thought around the world.
Thus, Hoxhaist parties were founded in many countries and they based their ideology on Enver Hoxha's ideas as to how a communist state should be constructed and embraced his strict adherence to Marxism—Leninism.
Following the fall of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania in , the Hoxhaist parties regrouped as an International conference and the publication Unity and Struggle.
General Secretaries of the Party of Labour of Albania :. Chairmen of the Presidium of the People's Assembly :. After withdrawing from Warsaw Pact activities in , it conducted a self-reliance policy for national defence, becoming one of the strongest militaries in the Balkans.
It was dissolved in and is retained in its current form through the Albanian Armed Forces. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Republics of the USSR.
Allied states. Related organizations. Dissent and opposition. Cold War events. See also: Hoxhaism. See also: Albanian-Soviet relations.
See also: Soviet—Albanian split. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Sino-Albanian split.
Main article: Fall of communism in Albania. Jak Junkut t' Scocniis Retrieved 23 July — via Internet Archive.
The Slavic and East European Journal. Tauris, p. London , S. Hodos: Schauprozesse. Berlin , S. BBC News. Retrieved 27 May Retrieved 13 March The Resurrection of the Church in Albania.
Geneva: WCC Publications. Many churches were damaged or destroyed during this period, and many Greek-language books were banned because of their religious themes or orientation.
Yet, as in other Communist states, particularly in the Balkans, where measures which were putatively geared towards the consolidation of political control intersected with the pursuit of national integration, it is often impossible to draw sharp distinctions between the ideological and ethno-cultural bases of repression.
Modern Albania: From Dictatorship to Democracy. NYU Press. Retrieved 16 February Countries of Eastern and Central Europe during their Communist period.
Byelorussia Ukraine. Eastern Bloc. Soviet Union Communism. Annexed as, or into, SSRs. Emigration and defection list of defectors Sovietization of the Baltic states Information dissemination Politics Economies Telephone tapping.
Socialism by country. Brazil United Kingdom United States. Cuba Grenada. Ardiaei Albanoi Amantini Enchele Taulantii. Origins Timeline Archives. Climate Biodiversity Habitat Protected areas.
Elections Assembly speakers Members Opposition. Military Police Organized crime Prisons Border crossings.
Shopping centers Supermarkets. Agriculture Healthcare Companies. Hydropower plants Wind farms Solar power. Oil and gas Mining.
Demographics Census list Clans Noble families Diaspora. Architecture Photography Museums Theatres. National team Clubs Players Stadiums. Music Television Radio Cinema.
Outline Index Bibliography. Categories : People's Socialist Republic of Albania Communism in Albania Eastern Bloc Former polities of the Cold War Former socialist republics Soviet satellite states Atheist states Hoxhaism Isolationism States and territories established in States and territories disestablished in establishments in Albania disestablishments in Albania disestablishments in Europe Communist states 20th century in Albania Totalitarian states.
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Population: more than More context All My memories Ask Google. Add a translation. German Bevölkerungszahlen. English Population numbers.
English population figures. German durchschnittliche Bevölkerungszahlen. English average population. German Die Bevölkerungszahlen schrumpften danach kontinuierlich.
German Die Bevolkerungszahl betragt 37,2 Tausend Einwohner. English The population is German Bevölkerungszahl: ca. English Number of population: approx.
German Die Bevolkerungszahl betragt 12 Tausend Einwohner. English The population of the town is 12 thousand persons.
German Bevölkerungszahl : 2 Millionen. English Population : 2 million. German Die Reisproduktion hielt der steigenden Bevölkerungszahl stand.
English The production of rice rose to match the growing population. German Bevölkerungszahl: 0. English Population: 0. English Taxes on land and buildings A and B, trade tax, number of inhabitants.
German Die Bevölkerungszahl verdreifachte sich. English The restoration of the city took several decades. German Die Bevölkerungszahl ist Menschen Stand English The population makes up 5, as of German Bevölkerungszahl: 21 Millionen Einwohner.
English Population: 21 million citizens. German Bevölkerungszahl: 8 im Jahr English Bevölkerungszahl: 8 im Jahr English Population: 8 as of German Bevölkerungszahl: über English Bevölkerungszahl: über
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